Introduction History & Immigration Culture People Multimedia Resources
  Text Size: S | M | L
People > Scottish Innovators > Kirkpatrick Macmillan

Notable Scots: Innovation & Discovery

Kirkpatrick Macmillan (1812-1878):

Blacksmith & Inventor

"He builded better than he knew."
~ inscription on a plaque on Macmillan's residence in Kier 1
Kirkpatrick Macmillan
Kirkpatrick Macmillan

While there is some debate as to who really invented the first bicycle; Scotland claims it was her own Kirkpatrick Macmillan. Macmillan, born in Kier, Dumfries & Galloway, was a skilled blacksmith. Around 1824, he saw a gentleman ride a hobby horse down the road in front of his workshop, and decided to make one for himself. After he gained some practice riding on his own hobby horse, he decided that would be much easier to ride if he could propel it without having to put his feet on the ground.

This final version of this new machine was completed around 1839. It had a rear-wheel drive and was made of solid wood. Its wooden wheels were rimmed with iron - the front wheel, which was used to steer, had a 30 inch diameter; the rear wheel, which was connected to a crank and pedals, had a 40 inch diameter. The whole structure weighted a hefty 57 pounds.

With practice, Macmillan was soon able to cover the fourteen mile distance between Kier and Dumfries in one hour on his bicycle. In June of 1842, he went to Glasgow to visit his brother, making the 68-mile trek in two days. Upon his arrival in Gorbals, however, a throng of people crowded to see him, and a child was knocked over in the crush. The Glasgow Herald reported that this "gentleman from Dumfries-shire . . . bestride a velocipede . . . of ingenious design" was fined five shillings for causing the incident.

It never occurred to Macmillan to patent his invention or to make money off of it - he was contented to enjoy his quiet country life, leaving others to profit from their copies.

Macmillan’s velocipede
Macmillan’s velocipede
Memorial Plaque
Memorial Plaque
  1. Erected 1939 by the National Committee on Cycling.
The opinions and interpretations in this publication are those of the author and
do not necessarily reflect those of the Government of Canada.
Copyright © 2009 Windsor Mosaic Website. All rights reserved